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Database or DB can be defined as a collection of information organized in such a manner that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. In short, database is an electronic filing system that is employed to manage the complexities of the organization.

Database enables common functionality of tasks like management of security, multiple user access and control of transactions. The key advantages of database are that it provides a language to define and manipulate data structure and recover data from failure. Thus, it saves on time and enables the organization to run smoothly.

Databases consist of two types of data: Reference data: It refers to set of tables of valid values such as State codes, product codes, product unit prices and discount rates.

Fact data: It refers to the actual business data.

Data Models

It can be defined as a conceptual representation of the data structures that are required by a database. It serves as a bridge between the concepts that make up real-world events and processes and the physical representation of those concepts in a database. The three kinds of data modals that are popular are:

•  Hierarchical

•  Network

•  Relational


Oracle, DB2, and SQL Server are examples of database management systems using the relational data model.

The nature, complexity and the process of planning database application varies from case to case. Actually speaking, it depends on the size and requirement of the organization. The database application for a large corporate bank that handles thousands of clients would be far more complex than the database designed for use by a single person.

A thorough understanding of the business modal that the organization wants to get implemented is one of the pre requirements for designing database.

Here, we are giving you the broad categories that you need to consider while designing a database

Objective: You need to be very clear regarding the objective behind designing the database. Every organization has a specific reason behind creating the database. Understand it and then proceed to the next step.

Database Plan: After zeroing in on the objective you along with your Data Base Administrator (DBA) need to create a database plan. The database plan would act as a blue print to your desired goal.

Database Normalization Rules: You also need to keep in mind the database normalization rules that would help you to minimize errors at the site. The normalization process would:

•  Minimize data redundancy

•  Minimize data restructuring

•  Minimize I/O reduction of transaction sizes

•  Enforce referential integrity


Security Plans of Database: You need to chalk out the security arrangement plans for your database. You need to ensure that it has foolproof security.

Balance between size of database and hardware configuration: You also need to ensure that a balance is maintained between the size of proposed database and the hardware configuration.

Performance needs of the system: The scope of improvement in the database system should be there that would help the system to perform better.

Import and export of data: The data should be easily exportable and importable from one application to the other.

Design accurate database: It is important to design an accurate database model as making changes later on is a time consuming affair. You need to remember that well designed database would perform better.

Import and export of data: As every system database also requires constant maintenance. It is important to back up the data regularly.


•  Book: Introduction to database system

This book provides comprehensive information on database system.

•  Book: Database Principles, Programming & Performance

This book provides information on the Database principles, programming and performances.

•  Book: Professional SQL Server 2000 Database Design

This book provides information on Professional SQL Server 2000 Database Design.

•  News Information on Database

This site provide information comprehensive knowledge on Database.
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